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Keeping a List of Time-Fillers. In a paper, psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman argued that a broad family of biases systematic errors in judgment and decision were explainable in terms of a few heuristics information-processing shortcuts , including availability and representativeness.
In a revision of the theory, Kahneman and Shane Frederick proposed attribute substitution as a process underlying these and other effects. In , psychologist Stanley Smith Stevens proposed that the strength of a stimulus e. Kahneman and Frederick built on this idea, arguing that the target attribute and heuristic attribute could be unrelated.
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Kahneman and Frederick propose three conditions for attribute substitution: . Attribute substitution explains the persistence of some illusions. For example, when subjects judge the size of two figures in a perspective picture, their apparent sizes can be distorted by the 3D context, making a convincing optical illusion. The theory states that the three-dimensional size of the figure which is accessible because it is automatically computed by the visual system is substituted for its two-dimensional size on the page.
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Experienced painters and photographers are less susceptible to this illusion, because the two-dimensional size is more accessible to their perception. Kahneman gives an example where some Americans were offered insurance against their own death in a terrorist attack while on a trip to Europe, while another group were offered insurance that would cover death of any kind on the trip. The former group were willing to pay more even though "death of any kind" includes "death in a terrorist attack", Kahneman suggests that the attribute of fear is being substituted for a calculation of the total risks of travel.
Stereotypes can be a source of heuristic attributes. So if the subject has a stereotype about the relative intelligence of whites, blacks, and Asians, that racial attribute might substitute for the more intangible attribute of intelligence. The pre-conscious, intuitive nature of attribute substitution explains how subjects can be influenced by the stereotype while thinking that they have made an honest, unbiased evaluation of the other person's intelligence.
Sunstein argued that attribute substitution is pervasive when people reason about moral , political , or legal matters.
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According to Sunstein, the opinions of trusted political or religious authorities can serve as heuristic attributes when people are asked their own opinions on a matter. Another source of heuristic attributes is emotion : people's moral opinions on sensitive subjects like sexuality and human cloning may be driven by reactions such as disgust , rather than by reasoned principles.
Monin reports a series of experiments in which subjects, looking at photographs of faces, have to judge whether they have seen those faces before.